The U.S. Geologic Survey has issued a report that details the estimated total nitrogen load entering Long Island Sound from Connecticut and contributing areas to the north from October 1998 to September 2009. According to the abstract, the report provides “discrete measurements of total nitrogen concentrations and continuous flow data from 37 water-quality monitoring stations in the Long Island Sound watershed. Total annual computed yields and basin characteristics were used to develop a generalized-least squares regression model for use in estimating the total nitrogen yields from unmonitored areas in coastal and central Connecticut. Significant variables in the regression included the percentage of developed land, percentage of row crops, point-source nitrogen yields from wastewater-treatment facilities, and annual mean stream flow.
“Computed annual median total nitrogen yields at individual monitoring stations ranged from less than 2,000 pounds per square mile in mostly forested basins (typically less than 10% developed land) to more than 13,000 pounds per square mile in urban basins (greater than 40% developed) with wastewater-treatment facilities and in one agricultural basin. Medians of computed total annual nitrogen yields for water years 1999–2009 at most stations were similar to those previously computed for water years 1988–98. However, computed medians of annual yields at several stations, including the Naugatuck River, Quinnipiac River, and Hockanum River, were lower than during 1988–98. Nitrogen yields estimated for 26 unmonitored areas downstream from monitoring stations ranged from less than 2,000 pounds per square mile to 34,000 pounds per square mile.
“Computed annual total nitrogen loads at the farthest downstream monitoring stations were combined with the corresponding estimates for the downstream unmonitored areas for a combined estimate of the total nitrogen load from the entire study area. Resulting combined total nitrogen loads ranged from 38 to 68 million pounds per year during water years 1999–2009. Total annual loads from the monitored basins represent 63% to 74% of the total load. Computed annual nitrogen loads from 4 stations near the Massachusetts border with Connecticut represent 52% to 54% of the total nitrogen load during water years 2008–9, the only years with data for all the border sites.
During the latter part of the 1999–2009 study period, total nitrogen loads to Long Island Sound from the study area appeared to increase slightly. The apparent increase in loads may be due to higher than normal stream flows, which consequently increased nonpoint nitrogen loads during the study, offsetting major reductions of nitrogen from wastewater-treatment facilities. Nitrogen loads from wastewater treatment facilities declined as much as 2.3 million pounds per year in areas of Connecticut upstream from the monitoring stations and as much as 5.8 million pounds per year in unmonitored areas downstream in coastal and central Connecticut.